An antibiotic acts on the bacterial cell, destroying its wall, nucleus or other components. The virus, unlike a bacterium, does not have a cell – only a chain of DNA or RNA and a protein coat around it, that is why antibiotics cannot affect it.
An antibacterial agent is useless when combating viral diseases, such as cold and flu. Only if a bacterial infection has joined the flu antibiotics can be needed. An exception is streptococcal pharyngitis (streptococcal tonsillitis), which cannot be cured without an antibacterial agent.
Alexander Fleming, a British bacteriologist who discovered penicillin, a substance synthesized by molds and having the ability to destroy bacteria, can be considered the inventor of antibiotics.
They are not a universal medicine, which should always be at hand, but it is not poison, which negatively affects the human immunity and kills all beneficial bacteria in the body.
When curing certain a serious medical conditions, they are simply vital, but they must be taken strictly in accordance with a health-care provider prescription, to purchase it over-the-counter may be harmful to the health.
When is antibiotics’ usage is vital?
These medications must be administered when there are clinically justified indications for their usage. In case of the presence of a bacterial infection that has appeared independently (for example, intestinal) or against a background of a viral disease.
The most common examples of the urgent need for antibiotics are pneumonia, for UTI, bronchitis or otitis media, complications that develop on the background of the flu. But with colds, flu, measles, rubella and other viral diseases without a visible bacterial focus, the a course of medication with these preparations is inappropriate.
That’s why a specialist prescribes them only after a thorough examination of the patient that is typically supported by the laboratory tests. There must be present a documented or suspected bacterial infection.
When antibiotics aren’t allowed to be applied?
During pregnancy, such therapy is prescribed only if it is really impossible to do without such treatment. Medications are especially dangerous in the first trimester, but tetracyclines cannot be taken throughout the entire period of gestation (they can lead to impaired formation of bones and teeth in the fetus).
How antibiotics are normally applied?
These medicines have a different mechanism of exposure and mode of use: daily dose, frequency of administration and duration of use; some completely kill bacteria, others simply do not allow them to multiply.
When choosing a regimen, the patient’s age and the complexity of an infectious desease, as well as the history of the patient taking certain groups of antibiotics in the past, are of importance. After all, bacteria develop resistance to previously used drugs.
If a person, accidentally, has taken the extra pill of antibiotics, most likely, nothing will happen. Though it is not permissible to do so since the side effects appearance is possible.
Otherwise, if one has forgotten to take a tablet timely, they should do it as soon as possible. When there is already time for the subsequent dose, a patient must skip the missed remedy application and go on in a prescribed regimen.
What are negative effects of antibiotics?
When taking antibiotic drugs, adverse reactions may occur. If they are pronounced, you must not abruptly stop taking the remedy but get an advice from a doctor.
The most common side effects of antibiotics include:
- Urticaria or rash on the body;
- Itchy skin;
- Toxic effects of certain antibiotic groups on the liver;
- Toxic effects on the gastrointestinal tract;
- Endotoxin shock;
- Intestinal dysbiosis with diarrhea or constipation;
- Decreased immunity and weakening of the body (brittle nails and hair).
Penicillins most often cause an allergic reaction. This phenomenon is observed due to mass use, mainly. The use of other types of of drugs causes a manifestation of allergies not so often.
If the antibiotic caused an allergy, it is necessary to consult with your doctor about the replacement of the medication. Self-discontinuation of treatment is undesirable.
What are typical reactions to antibiotic usage?
Improper selection of the medication antibiotics or its incorrect use can aggravate the course of the disease: the pathogenic flora will become more stable, the body will weaken, the immunity will decrease, and another one may join the parasitic infection.
In addition, if one exceedes the recommended dose, antibiotics can cause critical processes in the body. These are such unpleasant consequences as:
- allergic reactions (nausea, vomiting, headaches, mild stool, etc.);
- violation of the gastrointestinal tract;
- disruption of the liver and kidneys (for people with an already existing pathology of these organs, the selection of the type of antibiotic and its dose should be done only by a specialist, because improper administration, in this case, can lead to very serious consequences – even death);
- exacerbation of another chronic pathology.
Antibiotics interaction with other drugs
Antibiotics medication treat bacterial infection and can reduce or change the effect of other drugs, including analgesic ones. Remedies that may interact with antibiotics during the treatment include:
- anti-inflammatory drugs;
- psoriasis medication;
- antifungal drugs;
- diabetes medication;
- muscle relaxants;
- migraine medication;
- some antidepressants.
In order to remove this stuff from the body, enzymes work that break down complex molecules into simple ones and remove everything superfluous. If you drink alcohol during therapy, the body receives a double toxic effect.
The reaction may be different – it depends on the group of the drug and the dose of alcohol: from an allergic rash to anaphylactic shock, so it’s better not to risk.
What types of antibiotics exist?
Specialists use different complex classifications of antibiotics. By the nature of the effect on the bacterial cell, antibiotics can be divided into two groups: bacteriostatic (bacteria remain alive, but not able to multiply) and bactericidal (bacteria die and are excreted).
In addition, groups of antibiotics by the chemical structure are distinguished – penicillins, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, etc. In each group, there are drugs that have a similar structure and activity spectrum.
Sometimes, they are divided into classes. Each group has its own indications for use, a spectrum of pathogens against which the drugs are most active, as well as certain side effects, negative reactions, and contraindications.
So, aminoglycosides can exhibit ototoxicity or a negative effect on the kidneys, so, they are not used in children and certain groups of patients. Penicillins are highly allergenic, they should be prescribed with caution in allergy sufferers. Tetracyclines are not used in children under 12 years of age due to their effect on the rudiments of teeth.
What is resistance to antibiotics?
Frequent unreasonable use of antibiotics by people can cause long-term problems. As a result of the release of these drugs into the environment, bacteria develop resistance to them.
This natural process contributes to the improper handling of medicines. And then with diseases, when antibiotics are really necessary and prescribed, they are ineffective. There are multi-resistant bacteria that are resistant to almost all antibiotics.
Infectious diseases caused by such pathogens are difficult, and in the worst case, they are not even treatable – and therefore represent an increasingly serious problem in medicine.
All articles on this site are purely informative. The treatment of each individual case should be selected by the doctor after the examination. Canadianpharmtabs.com is not responsible for the decision made by its visitors to treat themselves with certain drugs, as well as for their health and well-being. The site administration encourages all its customers to be careful and responsible in relation to their health!
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